Whole Grains 101
This slightly sticky grain is high in fiber and nutrient rich, with a high concentration of lysine, an essential amino acid.
These are made from lightly toasted pearled barley rolled into flakes.
Buckwheat is a distant cousin to rhubarb and actually isn’t related to wheat or other grains at all. Look for toasted and untoasted varieties and use it as you would other grains, to make pilafs, casseroles and stuffings.
Bulgur is partially cooked cracked wheat. It’s quick cooking and delicious in grain salads like tabouleh.
This one is just as it sounds; it refers to wheat berries that have been cracked into small pieces.
Farro belongs to the wheat family and for good reason. It’s rich in fiber, magnesium, and vitamins A, B, C and E.
This ancient Egyptian wheat was recently rediscovered and we’re so glad! It’s rich and buttery with a great, chewy texture. You can use like oatmeal.
This mild, very digestible grain is a favorite for folks on a wheat-free diet. It also has a good balance of essential amino acids and is delicious with sautéed vegetables and beans or when used to make risotto.
Barley is lightly milled to retain all of the germ and at least two thirds of the bran, which makes it a healthy choice to use for grain salads, soups, stews and chili, or as a stuffing for vegetables.
This is basically corn that has a hard protein outer layer covering its inner starch layers, and we’re betting you probably already know how to eat this one.
This protein powerhouse is actually a small dried seed with a great nutty flavor. It’s perfect as a stuffing for enchiladas, salads or tacos.
Rolled Oats are a good source of B vitamins and minerals, including calcium, phosphorus and iron.
This high-protein, low-gluten grain is more slowly digested than other grains. Combine with beans for a particularly good match.
This whole grain is often in the spotlight and for good reason. Spelt, while similar to wheat, actually has 30% more protein. It’s particularly well tolerated by wheat sensitive folks, too. Use spelt just as you would wheat, and look for spelt flakes, too, which can be used like rolled oats.
Steel cut oats
These are steamed and cut whole oat groats (a.k.a. hulled grains). They’re chewy and make for a particularly rustic and delicious hot cereal.
This ancient grain has a sweet and malty flavor; it’s a rich source of calcium, magnesium, boron, copper, phosphorus and zinc, too. Contains twice as much iron as wheat and barley!
Whole Grains: Cooking Tips
- Rinse: Just prior to cooking, rinse whole grains thoroughly in cold water until the water runs clear then strain them to remove any dirt or debris.
- Cook: As a general rule, you can cook whole grains by simply boiling the water, then adding the grain, return water to a boil, then simmer, covered, until tender. Cooking hint: Use broth instead of water for even more flavor.
- Test: Just like pasta, always test whole grains for doneness before taking them off of the heat; most whole grains should be slightly chewy when cooked.
- Fluff: When grains are done cooking, remove them from the heat and gently fluff them with a fork. Then cover them and set aside to let sit for 5 to 10 minutes and serve.
Whole Grain Flour 101
The first thing you should know about buying whole grain flours is that they should always smell fresh. Store them in the refrigerator in moisture-tight containers, where you can expect them to last 2 to 4 months. (Hint for the cook: always let flour come back to room temperature before using for the best results.) For more on the grains that these flours are made from, see above.
A strong, sweet, spicy, nutty-flavored flour. Best used as an accent flour in waffles, pancakes, cookies or muffins. And this one’s gluten-free.
Higher in protein than yellow cornmeal. Blue cornmeal turns lavender when cooked. Use this gluten-free flour to make beautiful pancakes, muffins and corn tortillas.
Commonly used combined with wheat flour for pancakes, waffles, blintzes, and in pastas. Whole Grain Apple Waffles.
Gluten flour is white flour mixed with concentrated wheat protein. Add to bread dough to increase leavening (2 tablespoons per 1 cup flour in whole grain bread; 1 tablespoon plus 1 teaspoon per 1 cup flour in white breads). Also add to breads with extra bran, raisins or nuts. Increase kneading time to activate extra gluten.
Hard whole wheat flour with a coarse and flaky outer bran layer and finely ground germ. Though its most famous use is in crackers, it adds texture to all baked goods.
Contains soluble fiber, which can help lower blood cholesterol levels when eaten as part of a low-cholesterol diet. Add oat bran to muffins or bread, or use it as a coating for chicken and seafood.
When added to baked goods, the results are moist and dense. Due to its low gluten content it’s often mixed with whole wheat flour to increase its rising ability.
Durum flour with the bran and germ removed. Used to make high quality "white" pasta. Also adds extra flavor and texture in some bread recipes.
Like rye flour, this high-protein flour is usually combined with whole wheat flour to increase its rising ability.
This ancient grain is used as a wheat substitute. (Note: If substituting for wheat in a recipe, reduce the liquid by 25 %.) Don’t over knead; the gluten here is sensitive.
Rich in calcium, protein and iron; sweet malty flavor. Use this gluten-free flour in quick breads, pancakes, and waffles. In leavened breads, use 5 parts wheat flour to 1 part teff flour.
Unbleached white flour
Refined wheat flour; naturally aged to strengthen its gluten. Excellent for baking breads and cakes. It’s often combined with whole wheat pastry flour for cookies.
Vitamin and mineral-rich layer of the wheat berry. Excellent source of vitamin E. Look for it toasted or untoasted. Add to pancakes and other baked goods as well as meat or vegetable loaves.
Whole durum wheat flour
From very high protein wheat; has less starch than other wheat flours. Makes a tough dough that can stretch and expand, so it’s perfect for making whole grain pasta.
Whole wheat flour
Ground from the entire wheat berry to it has a full-bodied flavor and coarse texture.
Whole wheat pastry flour
Ground from soft wheat berries, this flour absorbs less liquid in recipes. Use in non-yeast baked goods such as cookies, pancakes, muffins, quick breads and cakes.
Unprocessed bran flour
The ground outer layer of the wheat berry. Use small amounts at a time to increase your fiber intake.