Variety Breads

It's been said that variety is the spice of life, therefore, variety breads play a major role in the enjoyment of any meal. Following, are examples of formulas for the production of variety breads and a brief description of production procedures.

Although Artisian Breads which are mostly made by hand in retail shops, are not covered, they are becoming very popular in some parts of the country. Bakery Equipment Manufacturers are beginning to manufacture the specialized equipment necessary to produce this type of bread in large quantities.


Ingredients                         Percent
Flour, bread                            100
Water, variable                         65
Yeast, compressed                     4
Salt                                            2
Sugar                                         6
Shortening                                  5
Milk, dry nonfat                          6
Raisins                                      60
Cinnamon ground                   0.05
Mineral yeast food                 0.25
Emulsifier (bread softener)      0.25 

Fermentation, dividing, rounding, intermediate proofing, molding, panning, proofing, baking and cooling are the same as for white bread doughs. Note: The reason for using a larger percentage of water in the formula is because raisins absorb water and if water is not increased slightly, the dough would be too stiff making it difficult to run through the machinery.


Ingredients                           Percent
Flour, rye                                        30
Flour, clear grade, wheat                 70
Water, variable                                58
Yeast, compressed                            2
Salt                                                   2
Sugar                                                2
Shortening                                         2
Mineral yeast food                        0.25
Emulsifier ( bread softener )           0.25
Caraway seeds (whole or ground) 0.25
Ryeflavor                                      0.25

Water is variable in the formula because rye flour absorbs considerably more water than wheat flour, darker rye flours absorb more water than lighter rye flours, and if making pan type rye bread, more water is used than for hearth type bread.

Mixing the rye dough. Rye dough should be mixed slightly stiffer than white bread. Rye doughs also produce best results if mixed in slow speed to keep from over mixing the dough. Remember, rye flour does not have gluten forming properties, so there is less gluten to develop. Rye doughs produce better quality bread if developed by natural hydration rather than by high speed mixing. The doughs should be mixed slightly cooler than white bread ( 76°F ). Either the straight dough method or the sponge-and-dough method of mixing can be used.

Fermentation of rye doughs. Rye flour is more fermentative than wheat flour because rye flour contains a larger percentage of natural sugars, diastase and protease enzymes and is slightly higher in natural acidity than wheat flour, all of which have an acceleration effect on gas production and gas retention. Therefore, rye doughs require less fermentation time than doughs containing only wheat flour. Using the fermentation ratio as discussed earlier is the best way to determine how long to ferment the dough.

Make up of dough. Dividing, rounding and intermediate proofing are basically the same as for white bread. Rye bread may be baked in regular round top bread pans, on sheet pans or directly on the hearth of the oven. If baked on sheet pans or on the hearth, the dough must be mixed stiffer than if baked in regular bread pans so the loaf will keep its shape without flattening out. Less proof is also required.

Proofing rye bread doughs. Hearth type rye bread is generally proofed on special wooden boards which have had corn meal sprinkled onto them. When the proofing period is completed, the loaves are washed with corn starch wash or egg wash and a sharp object about the size of a pencil is punched about half way through the loaf about two inches apart the full length of the loaf. Another method is to use a very sharp knife and making several diagonal shallow cuts along the top of the loaf. The purpose of punching (docking ) or cutting the loaf before baking is to prevent the loaf from having wild cracks. Special hearth type pans are available to speed up the operation. They are made from a fairly thick metal which looks like a screen. When this type of pan is used, corn meal is not required.

Baking the bread. If low pressure ( moist ) steam is available the steam is injected into the oven just prior to loading the loaves into the oven and left on until the loaves begin to color. The steam is then turned off. Steam produces a shiny glossy crust color and helps to prevent wild breaks in the loaves. Note: Low pressure ( moist ) steam is steam under 15 pounds per square inch. High pressure steam is dry steam and would be of no benefit.

Cooling, slicing and packaging. Baked rye breads are handled the same as other types of breads.


Ingredients                 Percent
Flour, clear, wheat              100
Water, variable                    56
Yeast, compressed                2
Salt                                       2
Sugar                                    2
Shortening                             2
Mineral yeast food            0.25

French breads and Vienna breads are made from a lean to semi-rich formula. A strong clear grade of wheat flour is recommended, but a good grade of patent flour can be used with good results. The interior of the French bread is more open and the texture usually has holes. Also, the crust is more thoroughly baked than pan bread which accounts in part to its finer taste and flavor.

The dough should be mixed slightly cooler (about 76 degrees F.) and the gluten should be fully developed, but not over mixed. It should also be fully fermented but not over- fermented.

French bread is made up in a variety of shapes. The pointed or baton shapes are the most popular. Also, a small strip or strand of dough is stretched and placed on top of the full length of the loaf. This eliminates having to dock or cut the top of the loaf after proofing. Loaves are also made by braiding three or more pieces of dough together. Proofing and baking are carried out in the same manner as for rye bread, with the exception that poppy seeds or sesame seeds are sprinkled on top of the loaves after they have been washed with cornstarch wash or egg wash. French bread should be thoroughly baked to produce the desirable characteristics of the crust. A plentiful supply of low pressure steam should be used as in rye breads. French bread can also be baked on sheet pans, screens or directly on the hearth.

Just before the French loaves are loaded into the oven they are washed with corn starch wash or egg wash and cut or docked. Sesame seeds or Poppy seeds can be sprinkled on the loaves at this time. Low pressure steam in injected into the oven and left on until the loaves begin to color. This produces a shiny crust color.


Sandwich ( Pullman ) bread is made using the standard white, whole wheat or wheat bread formula, and mixed, fermented, made up, intermediate proofed and molded the same. The molded pieces of dough are placed into long rectangular pullman pans having a cover which is placed on top. The covers can be put on as the molded pieces of dough are placed in the pans or they can be put on after proofing and just before the pans are loaded into the oven. The loaves should be given a slightly shorter proof than regular round top bread (about three fourth). This is to allow for the ovenspring which will cause the dough to reach the cover, forming a flat top rather than a round top. Avoid too much underproof, because this will result in the dough not reaching the cover and a rounded loaf rather than a square loaf. Overproofing on the other hand causes the dough to push the cover up slightly and come out of the pan at the edges, resulting in poor symmetry.

The pullman pan is used to bake sandwich bread. The cover is put on just before the loaves are loaded into the oven to form a square loaf.

After the bread is fully baked, unload the oven, remove the cover, manually or mechanically. Dump the bread out of the pan and place the loaf upside down on cooling racks or conveyor belt. Purpose of placing the baked loaf upside down is to allow the loaf to retain its square shape. Cooling, slicing and packaging are handled the same as other types of breads.


Ingredients                  Percent
Flour, bread, wheat             100
Potato Flour                           3
Water, variable                     65
Yeast, compressed                 2
Salt                                        2
Sugar                                     6
Shortening                              5
Milk, dry nonfat                     6
Mineral yeast food            0.25

Mix the dough using the same procedures as for white pan bread. Potato Flour contain approximately 75% carbohydrates occurring in the form of gelatinized starch. This gelatinized starch is readily converted to maltose sugar by the flour enzyme diastase. This is the reason why potatoes speed up the fermentation process. Potatoes also contain growth promoting mineral substances which stimulate yeast development. Emulsifiers ( bread softeners ) are not needed because potatoes function as stale retarding agents which helps to reduce the rate at which the bread crumb becomes firm. Make up of dough etc. are the same as for white bread.


Percentages of bread ingredients are the same as for white bread with the exception that whole wheat bread contain only whole wheat flour, whereas wheat bread contain both whole wheat and white flour in various amounts. For example, 75% whole wheat flour and 25% white flour or 50% whole wheat flour and 50% white flour. All bread production procedures are the same as white bread. Since whole wheat flour absorbs more water than white flour, an increase in formula water will be necessary.

Hard white wheat flour will make excellent quality white whole wheat bread. Usually it will be necessary to add 3 - 4 pounds of vital wheat gluten per 100 pounds of flour. Dough strengtheners such as "calcium steroyl lactylate, or sodium steroyl lactylate" are also permissable in the amount of about 4 ounces per 100 grams of flour. Many other varieties of breads can be produced using 7 Grain Cereals, Corn Meal, Cheese, Dehydrated Garlic, Dehydrated Onions, and Nuts in the formula. Also, as mentioned above Artesian Breads are becoming very popular as are Pita Breads/Pocket Breads.

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